Images of Jerusalem: Agrippas Street

A huge graffiti mural painted by a group of French street artists on the wall of a residential building on Agrippas Street, depicting the adjacent Mahne Yehuda street-market.

Jerusalem's Old City Gates: Zion Gate

One of the original gates of the Ottoman wall, but was of much lesser importance than Jaffa Gate and served as a quite secondary point of departure from the city, mainly for those going to the cemeteries and religious structures on Mount Zion.

The Zion Gate was badly damaged in 1949 when the Palmach blasted their way through here to reach the besieged Jewish community in the Old City.
The gate was partially repaired after the Six Day War.
Some of the scars of battle have been deliberately exposed to record the history of the city.

Shaar Zion, Jewish Quarter Gate or Prophet David Gate The Old City Gates The Old City Gates Jerusalem Walls and Gates Jerusalem Walls and Gates Israel Travel Guide: Old City of Jerusalem Israel Travel Guide: Old City of Jerusalem Israel Travel Guide: Old City of Jerusalem Israel Travel Guide: Old City of Jerusalem

Sultan Suleiman street, Jerusalem

Jerusalem Daily photo

Jerusalem, Sultan Suleiman street.

Jerusalem's Old City Gates: Herod's Gate

Old City of Jerusalem.

This gate was known as the Flower Gate because of the floral designs engraved on its facade.
The original gate was known as Bab-a-Sahairad and referred to the Moslem burial ground opposite the gate.
A-sahairad means 'those who do not sleep at night' and alludes to the future resurrection of those buried there.
However the name was eventually corrupted into A-zahar which in Arabic means Flower Gate.

This gate is also known as Herod's Gate, because it leads to the house of Herod Antipas, where Jesus Christ was sent by Pilate.
Also called the Sheep's Gate due to the weekly sheep market that used to be held in the square outside the gate.

Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem Walls and Gates Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem Walls and Gates Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem Walls and Gates Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem Walls and Gates

History Timeline of Jerusalem

3500 BCE

Jerusalem first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring.

19th Century BCE

Jerusalem listed in the Egyptian Execration Texts - first recorded mention of the city as Rusalimum.

The Hyksos Period - 1750 BCE–1500 BCE

14th Century BCE – Letters by local ruler of Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondence as Urusalim in the Amarna Archives.

1010-970 – The reign of King David.
1003 – King David establishes Jerusalem as Capital of United Kingdom of Israel.
970-931 – The reign of King Solomon.
950 – King Solomon commences construction of the First Temple.
931 – Division of Kingdom into Israel and Judah.
837-800 – The reign of Hezekiah, King of Judah - tunnels conduit from Gihon spring to Siloam pool.
721 – Assyrians conquer northern Kingdom of Israel and carry 10 of the 12 tribes into captivity and eventual dispersal.
701 – Hezekiah successfully withstands Sennacherib's assault on Jerusalem.
598-587 – Nebuchadnezzar's second invasion.
597 – Babylonians capture Jerusalem.
588-586 – Nebuchadnezzar's third invasion.
586 – Destruction of Jerusalem and of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, and the exile of the Jews to Babylon (Lam 1.4 / 2.2).
582 – The desolation of the city was completed (Jer. 40-44), the final carrying captive into Babylon all that still remained, so that it was left without an inhabitant.
539 – Fall of Babylon.

The Persian Period - 537 BCE–332 BCE

538 – Edict of Cyrus.
537 – Remnant of about 50.000 Jews return from Babylon by edict of King Cyrus.
536 – Jerusalem was again built, after a captivity of seventy years, "in the first year of Cyrus" (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11). Zerubbabel ("Seed of Babylon") led the first band of Jews, numbering 42.360, from the Babylonian Captivity, in the first year of Cyrus.
520 – Work begins on rebuilding the Temple.
515 – Completion and rededication of the Second Temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra 6.15-18).
458 – Ezra the Scribe comes from Babylon - Law revived.
445 – Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea by Artaxerxes, was king of the Persian Empire from 464BCE to 424BCE. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books in the Bible, Ezra and Nehemish. He allowed the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem. He was followed on the throne by his son Xerxes II.
397 – Ezra, the Scribe initiates religious reforms.

The Hellenistic Period - 332 BCE–63 BCE

332 – Alexander the Great of Macedonia (356-323BCE) defeats Darius III of Persia at Gaugamela and conquers Palestine from the Persians (Daniel 11.3) captures Jerusalem and Helenization begins.
323 – Death of Alexander in Babylon - Wars of Succession begin.
320 – Ptolemy I (dynasty of Egyptian Kings that ruled between 323-30BCE) captures Jerusalem.
320-198 – Rule of the Egyptian Ptolemies.
198-167 – Rule of the Syrian Seleucids (a Macedonian dynastywhich ruled various area in Asia Minor and the Middle East between 321-64BCE).
169 – Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-163BCE) outlaws Judaism and on December 25th, profanes the Temple. During his reign there was much intrigue for the high priesthood on the part of Jason and Menelaus, and because of their misbehaviour Antiochus visited Jerusalem in 169 and insisted on entering the holy of holies, and carried off some of the gold and silver vessels. Pressure from Egypt convinced him of the necessity to hellenize Palestine, and measures against the old religion resulted in the cessation of the sacrifices in the Temple and the erection of a Greek altar on the site of the old one on 25 December 167.

The Hasmonean Period - 167 BCE–63 BCE

166 – The priest Mattathias begins a Maccabean revolt.The revolt led by Mattathias HaHashmonai and his 5 sons led to the reconsecration of the Temple just 3 years later. Antiochus, who on coins of the later years of his reign called himself (Theos) Epiphaneus ‘(god) manifest’, died on campaign in Media in 164.
167-141 – Maccabean War of Liberation. The Maccabees founded the Hasmonean royal line and established Jewish independence in the Land of Israel for about 100 years. The Hasmonean Dynasty was founded by a resolution, adopted in 141 BCE, at a large assembly "of the priests and the people and of the elders of the land, to the effect that Simon should be their leader and high priest forever, until there should arise a faithful prophet" (1 Maccabees xiv. 41).
164 – Judah Maccabee recaptures Jerusalem and restores the Temple.
166-160 – Rule of Judah the Maccabee.
160-143 – Rule of Jonathan.
150 – Essene community founded. The Essenes were a religious sect of Judaism that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE. Many scholars today believe there were a number of separate bur related groups that had in common mystic, eschatological, messianic and ascetic beliefs that were referred to as the "Essenes".
143-135 – Rule of Simon Maccabeus, who was a son of Mattathias Maccabeus and became the first king of the Hasmonean Dynasty.

The Roman Period - 63 BCE–324 CE/AD

63 – General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome.
63-37 – Hasmonean rules continues but under the protection of Rome.
40 – Rome appoints Herod (74BCE-march4BCE) King of Judea. Herod I, also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman client-king of Judea. (To the majority of Christians Herod is best known from the Gospel according to Matthew, chapter 2, that gives an account of the events leading up to and including what subsequently has become to be referred to by Christians as the "Massacre of the Innocents").
40-AD 4 – Reign of Herod the Great.
37 – King Herod the Great captures Jerusalem.
19 – Preparation of stones for the rebuilding of the Temple.
18 – Herod starts actual rebuilding of the Temple.
10 – Although not complete until AD63, Temple is dedicated.
About 5/4 John the Baptist, Jesus of Nazareth born (year approximate).
04 – Herod the Great dies and Herod Archaleus becomes ethnarch of Samaria, Judea and Idumea (4BCE-6CE).

BCE to CE:
26-36 – Pontius Pilate, Roman procurator of Judea for 10 years, who condemned Jesus to crucifixion.
31 – April 25 / Nisan 14: Crucifixion of Jesus.
41-44 – Agrippa, king of Judea, builds new city wall (The "Third Wall"). Agrippa I also called the Great (c.10 BC - AD 44), king of Judea, the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Berenice. His original name was Marcus Julius Agrippa, and he is the king named Herod in the Acts of the Apostles, in the Bible.
44 – Death of Herod Agrippa.
63 – Temple completed.
66-73 – The Great Revolt - The War of the Jews against the Romans.
70 – Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Second Temple by Titus Flavius.
73 – Fall of Masada.
132-135 – Bar Kochba's war of freedom - Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led Bar Kokhba's revolt against the Romans in 132 CE, establishing an independent state of Israel which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("prince," or "president"). His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 CE following a two-year war. Originally named Simon Bar Koziba, he was given the name Bar Kokhba (Aramaic for "Son of a Star", referring to , "A star has shot off Jacob") by his contemporary, the Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva, who contemplated the possibility that Bar Kochba could be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. (Some have considered Kozeba, meaning "deceiver", to also be a rabbinic nickname for the rebel). Jerusalem again the Jewish Capital.
135 – Emperor Hadrian's total destruction of Jerusalem and building of new walls and new city renamed Aelia Capitolina. "Aelia" came from Hadrian's nomen gentile, Aelius, while "Capitolina" meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the Jewish temple. Roman enforcement of this prohibition continued through the fourth century. The city was without walls, protected by a light garrison of the Tenth legion, during the Late Roman Period. The detachment at Jerusalem, which apparently encamped all over the city’s western hill, was responsible for preventing Jews from returning to the city.

The Byzantine Period - 324–638

– Queen Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, visits Jerusalem, determines locations of events associated with the last days of Jesus, and causes churches to be build to commemorate them, most notably the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in AD 335. (A sepulchre (also spelled "sepulcher") is a burial chamber. In ancient Hebrew practice, it was carved into the rock of a hillside. The term is often used for the supposed burial site of Jesus in Jerusalem, over which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre has been erected).
438 – Empress Eudocia (422-462) permits Jews to live in Jerusalem (she was the only daughter of Eastern emperor Theodosius II and of his wife, the poetess Aelia Eudocia.
614 – Persian conquest of Jerusalem. When Heraclius took power, the Empire was in a desperate situation. The Persian King Khosrau II, used the death of Maurice as an excuse to launch a war against the Byzantines. Khosrau had at his court a man who claimed to be Maurice's son Theodosius, and Khosraudemanded that the Byzantines accept him as Emperor. The Persians had slowly gained the upper hand in Mesopotamia over the course of Phocas's reign; when Heraclius' revolt resulted in civil war, the Persians took advantage of the internal conflict to advance deep into Syria. Emperor Heraclius offered peace terms to the Persians upon his accession, but Khosrau refused to treat with him, viewing him as just another usurper of Theodosius' throne. Heraclius' initial military moves against the Persians ended disastrously, and the Persians rapidly advanced westward. They took Damascus in 613, Jerusalem in 614 (damaging the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the Holy Cross in the process).
629 – The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recaptures the city. In 630, he reached the height of his power when he marched triumphantly into Jerusalem and restored the True Cross to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. But unfortunately for his war-weary empire, and unknown to him at the time, Muhammad had only recently succeeded in unifying all the nomadic tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs, who had been too divided in the past to pose a military threat, now comprised one of the most powerful states in the region, and were animated by their new conversion to Muhammad's religion of Islam.

The Early Muslim Period - 638–1099

637 – Six years after Mohammed's death, Umar ibn al Khattāb (581-November 3.644), also known as Omar or Umar, became the second caliph of Islam. After a prolonged siege of Jerusalem, the Muslims took the city. `Umar was given the key to the city by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Sophronius, and invited to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Umar chose to pray some distance from the Church, so as not to endanger its status as a Christian temple. Fifty-five years later, the Mosque of `Umar was constructed on the site where he prayed. Jews are readmitted to Jerusalem.
691 – Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malik (646-705).
710 – After the Dome of the Rock (690), the first wooden Al-Aqsa Mosque was constructed by the Umayyads, completed in 710, by Caliph al-Walid (668-715), an Umayyad caliph, who ruled from 705-715. There is some evidence that the mosque was built out of the ruins of the auxiliary Second Temple building called the Chanuyos. The structure has been destroyed by earthquakes and rebuilt at least five times. The last major rebuild was in 1035.
1009 – In 1009, Caliph al-Hakim destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, then under Fatimid control, and persecuted the Christians and other dhimmis in Palestine (Dhimmi, or Zimmi as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Islamic religion). Although the church was rebuilt by Byzantine emperor Constantine IX in 1048, its destruction was remembered by Christians in Western Europe for the rest of the century. Though conditions for pilgrims and Christian inhabitants improved somewhat in the Holy Land under Hakim's successors in the 11th century, the destruction of the church was used to support the First Crusade; in 1096, after the Council of Clermont, there was even a forged letter published, supposedly written by Pope Sergius IV, calling for a Crusade in 1009.

The Crusader Kingdom - 1099–1244

1099 – Crusaders, led by Godfrey de Bouillon, capture of Jerusalem following Pope Urban's call in 1096. Baldwin I declared King of Jerusalem.
1187 – Kurdish general Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders. He permits Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.
1192 – Richard the Lion Heart attempts to re-capture Jerusalem but fails. Treaty with Saladin permitting Christians to worship at their Holy sites.
1219 – City walls razed by Sultan Malik-al-Muattam.
1244 – Cairo allied with the Khwarismian Turks, who'd been knocking about Syria for a few years after the death of their king. They were fierce fighters and had once held a great kingdom between the Caspian and the Aral Sea, before the Mongols had driven them out. Since then, they were more like marauding nomads.They'd been up around Edessa (Greece) when receiving the Sultan's invitation to alliance. They started moving south. By the time anyone realized the danger they represented, it was much too late. The Khwarismians entered Jerusalem on 11 July 1244. They killed some of the inhabitants, but the Sultan negotiated on their behalf. On 23 August, six thousand Christians were allowed to leave the city. As they marched away, they saw Frankish flags hoisted on the ramparts. Some argued to keep going, but two thousand or so turned back. They were all killed beneath the walls. The other four thousand were attacked repeatedly by raiders. Only three hundred reached Jaffa.The Khwarismians, meanwhile, had sacked the city. They killed everyone in an Armenian convent. They broke into the Holy Sepulchre and killed the few priests who'd refused to leave. They dug up the bones of the Kings of Jerusalem and set fire to the church itself. After pillaging the city of everything of value, they left. Jerusalem was nearly empty. End of Crusader rule.

The Mameluk Period - 1260–1517

1244 – Mameluk Sultans defeat the Ayyubids and rule Jerusalem. 
1260 – The Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem.
1267 – Nahmanides arrives from Spain, revives the Jewish congregation and establishes synagogue and center of learning bearing his name. He is commonly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe Ben Nahman.
1275 – Marco Polo stops in Jerusalem on his way to China.
1348 – The Black Death Plague hits Jerusalem.
1488 – Rabbi Obadiah of Bertinoro settles in Jerusalem and leads the community.
He lived in the second half of the fifteenth century in Italy; died in Jerusalem about 1500. He was a pupil of Joseph ben Solomon Colon (known as the Maharik).

The Ottoman Turkish Period - 1517–1917

1517 – Ottomans accomplish peaceful takeover of Jerusalem.
1537-1541 – Unwalled since 1219, Sultan Suleiman ("The Magnificent"), rebuilds the city walls including the present day 7 gates and the "Tower of David". The Damascus gate in 1542.
1700 – Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives, starts building "Hurva" Synagogue. The Hurva synagogue was the main synagogue in Jerusalem in the 15th-16th centuries, attributed to Rabbi Moses Ben Nahman (Ramban), until the Ottomans closed it in 1589 because the Muslim incitement. It was burned by Arabs in 1721 (Hurva means ruin in Hebrew) , but again rebuilt by Zionist in the 19th century. When it was captured by the Arab Legion of Jordan during the battle for Old Jerusalem in 1948, they dynamited it to show that they controlled the Jewish quarter.
1836 – First visit of Sir Moses Montefiore.
1838 – First consulate (British) opened in Jerusalem.
1860 – First Jewish settlement outside walls of the city.
1898 – Visit by Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the World Zionist Organization.

The British Mandate Period - 1917–1948

1917 – British conquest and General Allenby's (186101936) entry into Jerusalem. First governor of Palestine during British Mandate.
1918 – Dr. Chaim Weizmann lays foundation stone of Hebrew University on Mount Scopus.
1920 – Sir Herbert Samuel appointed first British High Commissioner and "Government House" established in Jerusalem.
1925 – Hebrew University buildings inaugurated.
1947 – United Nations Resolution recommending the partition of Israel.

The Israeli Period - 1948 —

14 May 1948 – British Mandate ends and State of Israel Proclaimed.

14 May 1948-Jan 1949 – Israel War of Liberation.
28 May 1948 – New City of Jerusalem remains intact but Jewish Quarter in Old City falls.
April 1949 – Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement signed, whereby Jerusalem divided between the two countries.
13 Dec 1949 – Jerusalem is Declared Capital of the State of Israel.
1965 – Teddy Kollek elected Mayor of Jerusalem.
5 June 1967 – Jordan shells and mortars New City on opening day of the Six Day War.
7 June 1967 – Israeli troops capture Old City and Jerusalem reunites.
23 June 1967 – Moslems, Christians and Jews are again given access to their Holy Places.
1980 – Jerusalem Basic Law enacted declaring united Jerusalem to be capital of Israel.
1994 – Mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO.

Gethsemane & Church of all Nations

Gethsemane (in Hebrew "gat semani" means "olive press") holds an important place in the Gospels, since Jesus spent there the night before his arrest after sharing his last supper with his disciples.

In the garden of Gethsemane Jesus suffered the Agony (Matthew 26:36-44). Located on the Mount of Olives, next to the garden is the Church of All Nations, also known as the Church (or Basilica) of the Agony, in commemoration of Jesus praying in Gethsemane the night before he was arrested and crucified.

The garden of Gethsemane still rich today in olive-trees hundreds of years old and it is possible that these trees may be shoots of shoots of the same trees that witnessed Jesus' last night before his arrest.

Church of All Nations

The name of the Church reflects the contributions which were made by a lot of countries to its construction. It is also called the Basilica of Agony, in reference to the pain which Jesus suffered on the eve of His Passion.

The Church of All Nations was built by the Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi 1919-1924.

At the construction of the current church Barluzzi discovered the foundations of a Byzantine basilica. This must have been the "elegant church" (Latin: ecclessia elegans), as it is called by the fourth century pilgrim Egeria in her travel story. Original segments of the Byzantine mosaic floor are preserved under glass. A new basilica was built during the Crusaders era at the same spot. After the departure of the Crusaders the church fell in decline and nothing more of it remained.  

The mosaic of the facade above the head portal presents Jesus as a mediator between God and people. Below is a text saying: "Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared" (Heb. 5:7). The four pillars of the portal carry pictures of four evangelists.

The windows are made of grey-blue alabaster and the casings - of Carrara marble. In the church the twelve pillars of reddish brown limestone from Bethlehem symbolize the olive-trees in the garden. The domed mosaics have been made by artists from several countries: Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Argentina (left); Great Brittain, Spain, France, Italy (in the middle of); Germany, Canada, Belgium and the United States (right).

In front of the high altar there is a large fragment of rock on which Jesus is supposed to have prayed the night before the Passion. The rock is entirely surrounded by a crown of thorns in wrought iron. In the apses there are several mosaics representing Christ in Agony being consoled by an Angel, The Kiss of Judas and The Arrest of Jesus. 

Ketef Hinnom, St.Andrews Church

Built in 1927 as a memorial to the Scottisch soldiers who fell in battle for Jerusalem in the First World War.
The church and hospice are designed by the British architect Clifford Holliday.

Israel in photos
Israel in photos

Jerusalem's Old City Gates: Lions' Gate (Sha'ar Ha'Arayot)

Through this gate, the Israeli paratroopers broke into the Old City of Jerusalem in the Six-Day War of 1967.

This is the only open gate in the eastern wall, and one of the original gates of the sixteenth-century wall encompassing the Old City.
It was called by many names in the past: Gate of the Tribes, Bad Sitt Maryam (Lady Mary's Gate) by the Arabs, Gate of Jehoshaphat, and St. Stephen's Gate (by the Eastern Church) after St. Stephen, who is believed to have been martyred nearby.

From the mid-nineteenth century the Jews called it the Lion's Gate after the two pairs of flanking carved lions (actually, leopards) in its facade – the symbol of the Mamluk sultan Baybars, who conquered Israel in 1260.

Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem's Old City Walls, Lions' Gate

Israel Travel Guide: Jerusalem's Old City Walls, Lions' Gate